The incidence of Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic syndrome typically characterised by central abdominal fat, disturbed glucose metabolism and insulin resistance have increased rapidly in both developing and industrialised societies possibly due to dietary and lifestyle factors.
Finding Nutrigenomic markers for early identification of those who may be at risk for developing these lifestyle (and age) related diseases have not been that straightforward. The Calpain 10 protein has been a prime suspect with several polymorphisms identified. This recent study looked at the CAPN 10 gene in patients with Metabolic syndrome to see if there is a relationship between the degree of insulin resistance and saturated fatty acid concentration in the blood. The results showed that there was indeed a significant correlation. It appears that individuals with the G/G genotype with a low saturated fat concentration in the blood had better glucose effectiveness, lower fasting insulin levels and lower degree of insulin resistance in comparison to the minor A/A and G/A genotypes. In contrast, G/G genotypes with high saturated fat concentrations had higher fasting insulin, higher insulin resistance and lower glucose effectiveness in comparison to the A/A and G/A genotypes.
In practice this could mean that if individuals with the G/G genotype are identified early, lifestyle and dietary intervention with a focus on fat intake, could prevent the development of Metabolic Syndrome and its associated complications.